Sodium-based technologies use cheap, abundant electrode materials. They have a high energy density, long lifecycle and can operate in harsh environments. Unlike many batteries, they consist of a solid or solid-smolten electrolyte.


Mainstream technologies

Sodium batteries which use liquid sulfur for the cathode (Na-S batteries)
Sodium nickel chloride batteries (Na-Nicl2)

Technical Data

Typical cell voltage

Cell level

328 KWh/m3, 142 KWh/ton

Complete battery level

170 kWh/m3, 120 kWh/ton



They are mainly used in stationary storage applications, such as wind and solar power grid energy storage. Sodium-nickel chloride is also used in hybrid electric light and heavy commercial road vehicles such as buses, vans and trucks.


High energy density, low weight, maintenance-free

Lead, lithium, nickel and sodium battery technologies have a growing potential and the European industry stands ready to increase its investment in innovation. Each chemistry will continue to be essential in our low carbon future. All battery technologies still offer strong innovation potential driven by emerging applications. No single battery chemistry or technology can meet all the challenges of end-user demand in a multitude of applications, combining high power and energy density, long life, low cost, excellent safety and minimal environmental impact.