There are different designs of lead battery with an important choice to be made between flooded   and valve regulated (VRLA). Both can be connected in large battery arrangements without sophisticated management systems.


Mainstream technologies

Flooded or ‘wet’ lead batteries: contain a liquid electrolyte that is free to move around in the battery encasement. When charged, the battery acid and lead plates react to store electricity.

Valve-Regulated Lead batteries (VRLA): commonly known as ‘sealed’ batteries, have an electrolyte immobilised – either by a gel (Gel batteries) or in an absorptive glass mat (AGM Batteries). The cells are closed but vented by a valve that allows the gas to escape if the internal pressure becomes too high.

Technical Data

Typical cell voltage

Cell voltage

Range is 1.8V – 2.1V



Lead-based technology is still the most widely used. It has numerous applications from back-up for uninterruptible power supplies and grid energy storage, traction power for forklifts through to auxiliary power in electric vehicles and for starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) in conventional combustion engine vehicles.


Affordable, proven, safe and sustainable.

Differentiated from other battery technologies   by a low cost per both kWh installed and kWh electricity throughput.